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校車政策為何成為美國民主黨初選爭議焦點

  In the Democratic presidential primaries debate at the end of June, the candidate, Harris, questioned his opponent, former Vice President Biden, in the 1970s and early 1980s against the "busing" position. Biden responded that what he opposed was not the school bus policy itself, but the mandatory promotion of the policy by the education department. The verbal confrontation between the two became one of the highlights of this debate, and it also sparked a discussion about whether the school bus policy broke the American education segregation system.

  六月底的民主黨總統初選辯論中,參選人哈利斯向其對手、前副總統拜登在1970年代、1980年代初期反對“校車政策”(busing)的立場提出質疑。拜登則回應道,自己反對的并非校車政策本身,而是教育部門對該政策的強制推廣。兩人的言詞交鋒成為這場辯論的亮點之一,也引發了人們對于校車政策是否打破了美國教育隔離制度的討論。

  What is the school bus policy? According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the “school bus policy”, also known as the “desegregation busing”, relies on the practice of carrying students to the local school district to mitigate the effects of apartheid policies. Although the US Supreme Court abolished the apartheid policy in the 1954 Brown v. Topeka Education Bureau case, in reality, students of different ethnicities were largely isolated because of the separation of their home and community locations. Come. The school bus policy thus became a major remedy, but it also became the biggest source of controversy in American education in the late 20th century.

  什么是校車政策?根據大英百科全書,“校車政策”又名“消除種族隔離的巴士”(desegregation busing),該政策通過將學生載送到當地學區內外的做法,來緩和種族隔離政策帶來的影響。盡管美國最高法院在1954年布朗訴托皮卡教育局案中廢止了種族隔離政策,但實際上,不同種族的學生仍因其住家和社區位置相互分離的原因,在很大的程度上被隔離開來。校車政策因而成為一種主要補救辦法,但其卻也成為20世紀后期美國教育中最大的爭議來源。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.244129.buzz/

  Why is Biden questioned because of the school bus policy? In 1974, the federal court in Delaware was about to decide to apply the school bus policy to the black public school in the state of Wilmington, the state's senator, Biden, who was provoked by the relevant speech, and then embarked on a school bus. The road to policy. The Times reported that "How does Joe Biden become a fighter of the Democratic Party against school bus? (How Joe Biden Became the Democrats' Anti-Busing Crusader) pointed out that Biden believes that he is a liberal Democrat and a dedicated civil rights defender, but he has become the most politically and ethnically in the United States because of his school bus policy. One of the topics of discrimination. The report said:

  拜登又為何會因校車政策遭到質疑?1974年,特拉華州的聯邦法院即將裁定將校車政策用于該州城市威爾明頓的黑人公立學校,當時是該州參議員的拜登因相關言論引發風波,之后走上了反對校車政策的道路。時報報道《喬·拜登如何成為民主黨反校車的斗士? 》(How Joe Biden Became the Democrats’ Anti-Busing Crusader)指出,拜登自認為是自由派民主黨人及熱忱的民權捍衛者,但他卻因為校車政策、一頭栽進了美國最具政治色彩和種族歧視的話題之一。報道稱:

  “He became a leader of the anti-school sports movement led by the Democratic Party – a position that led him to ally with the apartheids in the South, to clashed with liberal Republicans, and to help change the situation in the Senate and even to his own party. Some leaders oppose the school bus policy as a tool to eliminate apartheid."

  “他因此成為了民主黨領導的反校車運動斗士——這一立場使他與南方的種族隔離主義者結盟、與自由派共和黨人發生沖突,并且幫助改變了參議院的局勢,甚至讓他自己黨內的一些領導人反對校車政策能作為消除種族隔離的工具。”

  The Times report, "It Was Never About Busing," pointed out that the school bus policy actually admitted that the court's attempt to eliminate school segregation was a failure. The report mentioned that the word "busing" is a euphemism that has nothing to do with race. The term allows people to pretend that whites are not opposed to racial integration, but simply to let their children go to community schools. In fact, since the 1920s, American schoolchildren have already taken school buses to school, and rarely do so for the purpose of racial integration.

  時報分析報道《這從不是關乎校車政策》(It Was Never About Busing)指出,校車政策實際上承認了法院試圖消除學校種族隔離的舉動是失敗的。報道提到,busing一詞是一種與種族無關的的委婉說法。這個詞使人們得以假裝白人反對的不是種族融合,而僅是反對讓他們的孩子前往社區學校。事實上,自1920年代至今,美國學童就已經乘坐校車上學,而很少會出于種族融合的目的這么做。

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