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柏林墻倒塌30年:改變世界的一場意外

  BERLIN – When East German pastor and dissident Werner Kr?tschell heard that the Berlin Wall was open, he did not believe it. But he still took his daughter and her friend to the nearest checkpoint to see it.

  柏林——當東德牧師、持不同政見者沃納·克拉舍爾(Werner Kr?tschell)聽說柏林墻開放了時,他并不太相信。但他還是帶著女兒和她的朋友開車到最近的檢查站親自看了看。

  It was the night of November 9, 1989. When their yellow Wartburg car unimpeded into the safe zone that had been banned from entering, Clarke shook the window and asked a border guard: "Is it dreaming or is this true?" ”

  那是1989年11月9日的晚上。當他們黃色的瓦爾特堡牌汽車暢通無阻地開進一直以來都被禁止進入的安全區時,克拉舍爾搖下車窗,問一名邊防警衛:“是我在做夢還是這是真的?”

  You are dreaming, the guard replied.

  “你在做夢,”警衛回答。

  This is a towering symbol of no freedom, like a scar of cement and barbed wire, passing through the heart of this home city. For a long time, East Berliners like Krasher have always dreamed of dismantling it.

  這是一個象征著無自由的高聳符號,像一道水泥和鐵絲網組成的傷疤,穿過這座故鄉城市的心臟,長久以來,克拉舍爾這樣的東柏林人一直夢想著將它拆除。

  However, the realization of this dream, the opening of the most notorious armed guards in the Cold War era overnight, and the dismantling of the next few days, is not the result of some well-planned geopolitical deal.

  然而這個夢想的實現,這座冷戰時代最臭名昭著的武裝把守邊境在一夜之間的開放,以及接下來幾天的拆除,并不是某種精心策劃的地緣政治大交易的結果。

  At least at the most basic level, this is a wonderful result of human error, spontaneity and personal courage.

  至少在最基本的層面上,這是人為過失、自發性和個人勇氣作用下的奇妙結果。

  This is not a destined ending, said historian and columnist Anne Applebaum. "This is not a good victory against evil. Basically someone is derelict - and then happens to happen."

  “這不是個注定的結局,”歷史學家、專欄作家安·阿普爾鮑姆(Anne Applebaum)說。“這不是善對惡的勝利?;旧鲜怯腥耸?mdash;—然后碰巧發生的。”

  In the extraordinary evening of November, a press conference had a historic turn.

  在11月那個非同尋常的傍晚,一場新聞發布會出現了具有歷史意義的轉折。

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.244129.buzz

  In the context of mass protests and a wave of East German refugees fleeing from Hungary through Hungary and then Czechoslovakia, East Berlin Communist Party leader Gunter Schabowski called a reporter to announce a series of relaxed travel restrictions. Reform measures.

  在大規??棺h活動和一波東德難民通過匈牙利和當時的捷克斯洛伐克逃離德國的背景下,東柏林共產黨領導人君特·沙博夫斯基(Gunter Schabowski)召集記者,宣布了一系列放寬旅行限制的改革措施。

  When asked about when the new rules came into effect, Shabowski stopped for a moment and frowned and studied the notes in front of him. Then he stammered and said an answer that people didn't understand, claiming: "As far as I know, it takes effect... now... immediately."

  被問及新規定何時生效,沙博夫斯基停頓了一下,皺著眉頭研究了一下面前的筆記。然后,他結結巴巴地說出了一個讓人聽不太懂的答案,宣稱:“據我所知,生效是在……現在……馬上。”

  This is a mistake. The Politburo has no such plan at all. What they want is to calm down the growing resistance movement, make some minor adjustments to the visa rules, and retain the power to ban.

  這是個錯誤。政治局根本沒有這樣的打算。他們想的是為了平息愈演愈烈的抵抗運動,對簽證規則做一些小小的調整,同時保留禁止通行的權力。

  But many people take Shabowski's words seriously. The main evening news program in West Germany is very popular among East Germans, because East Germans have long ceased to believe in the media controlled by their country. When the show essentially declared the opening of the Berlin Wall, the crowd began to check around the Berlin Wall. Station, request to pass.

  但很多人把沙博夫斯基的話當真了。西德的主要晚間新聞節目在東德人中間很受歡迎,因為東德人早就不再相信自己國家控制的媒體,當這個節目實質上宣布柏林墻開放后,人群開始前往柏林墻附近的檢查站,要求通過。

  At one of the checkpoints, a Stasi official who has been loyal to the regime is working night shifts. His name is Lieutenant Colonel Harald J. Ger. (Lt. Col. Harald J?ger). The order he got was to drive people away.

紐約時報中英文網 http://www.244129.buzz/

  在其中一個檢查站,一名一直忠于政權的斯塔西官員正在上夜班。他的名字叫哈拉爾德·雅格中校(Lt. Col. Harald J?ger)。他得到的命令是把人們趕走。

  More and more people, the Lieutenant Colonel constantly reports to the higher level. But there are no new orders. He once heard a call to the ministry and accidentally heard a senior official question his judgment.

  人越來越多,中校不斷向上級匯報最新情況。但沒有新的命令。他一度聽了一個打給部方的電話,無意中聽到一名高級官員質疑他的判斷。

  “There was a question in the ministry whether Comrade Yage had the ability to properly assess the situation, or just because of fear,” recalls Yage, who was interviewed by Der Spiegel many years later. "I feel enough when I hear this sentence."

  “部里有人問,雅格同志是否有能力恰當地評估形勢,抑或只是因為恐懼,”多年后,在接受《明鏡周刊》(Der Spiegel)采訪時,雅格回憶說。“聽到這句話,我覺得受夠了。”

  You don't believe me, then listen to yourself! he shouted at the phone, then picked up the receiver and lifted it out the window.

  “你們不相信我,那自己聽聽看!”他在電話那頭喊道,然后拿起聽筒,把它舉到窗外。

  Soon after, Jager defies the superior, opened the transit passage, triggered the domino effect, and finally hit all checkpoints in Berlin. At midnight, the victorious East Germans had climbed the city walls, opened champagne, and set off fireworks to celebrate.

  不久之后,雅格違抗上級,打開了過境通道,引發了多米諾骨牌效應,最終沖擊了柏林的所有檢查站。到了午夜,勝利的東德人已經爬上城市中心的城墻,打開香檳,燃放煙花慶祝。

  No shots were made during the whole process. No Soviet tanks appeared.

  全過程未發一槍。沒有蘇聯的坦克出現。

  Axel Klausmeier, president of the Berlin Wall Foundation, said this was perhaps the biggest miracle of the night. "This is a peaceful revolution, unprecedented," he said. "They are prepared to deal with everything except candles and prayers."

  柏林墻基金會(Berlin Wall Foundation)會長阿克塞爾·克勞斯邁耶(Axel Klausmeier)表示,這或許是當晚最大的奇跡。“這是一場和平的革命,史無前例,”他說。“他們做好了應對一切的準備,除了蠟燭和祈禱。”

  In the history of the Berlin Wall, more than 140 people died under the wall, the vast majority of whom were trying to escape.

  在柏林墻的歷史上,有140多人死于墻下,其中絕大多數是試圖逃跑的人。

  The 58-year-old Ida Siekmann was the first victim, August 22, 1961, just nine days from the Berlin Wall. Her front side of the house on Bernauer Street became part of the border, the front door was filled with bricks, and she fell off when she jumped off the window on the third floor.

  58歲的艾達·西克曼(Ida Siekmann)是第一個受害者,那是1961年8月22日,距離柏林墻建成僅僅9天。她位于貝爾瑙爾大街的房子前側成了邊境的一部分,前門被磚塊填滿,她從三樓的窗戶上跳下時摔死。

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