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倫敦也為空氣污染發愁

  Businesses Take Action to Clean Up London’s Air

  倫敦也為空氣污染發愁

  LONDON — Boris Johnson, the mayor of London, says he has a solution to the city’s air pollution problem, one of the worst in Europe: Since last year, specially equipped trucks have trundled around the capital spraying glue to stick sooty particles to the ground in its worst traffic hotspots.

  倫敦——倫敦堪稱歐洲空氣污染最嚴重的城市之一,而倫敦市長鮑里斯·約翰遜(Boris Johnson) 聲稱他已找到治污對策:自去年起,配備特殊裝備的卡車開始在城市各處巡游,并在交通最繁忙的重點路段噴灑粘合劑,使煙煤顆粒沉降到地面。

  Critics accuse Mr. Johnson, who has a shrewd penchant for self-parody, of not taking the problem seriously. Environmentalists say the trucks have been particularly active near air quality monitoring stations, to help London avoid being fined for violating E.U. pollution limits.

  批評者們指責,擁有自嘲這種精明天性的約翰遜沒有認真對待污染問題。環保人士說,上述卡車在空氣質量檢測站點附近表現得尤其積極,目的是幫助倫敦免于因違反歐盟污染限制被罰款。

  Mr. Johnson disputes that, saying the spraying is one element of a serious cleanup effort.

  約翰遜爭辯說,政府已經展開了鄭重其事的清潔行動,噴淋路面只是其中的一項舉措。

  Amid widespread skepticism about the cleanup efforts, some businesses are taking action on their own, hoping to show that small steps, like consolidating deliveries and encouraging employees to walk to meetings, can make a real dent in the city’s pollution problem.

  公眾普遍質疑政府的清潔努力之時,一些商業公司正在采取自發行動。他們希望向公眾表明, 合并郵寄物品、鼓勵員工步行前往開會地點之類的小小舉動也能給城市的污染問題帶來切實改變。

  “It’s business leaders getting it, and getting on with it, in a way that the political leaders just aren’t,” said Simon Birkett, director of Clean Air in London, a research and campaigning group, and author of the Beijing-London comparison, released in April.

  西蒙·伯基特(Simon Birkett)是研究和運動組織“倫敦清潔空氣”(Clean Air in London)的負責人,也是四月發布的一篇論文的作者,該論文對北京和倫敦進行了對比。他說:“企業領導人正在處理這個問題,而且處理得很好,政治領袖就是不懂得這樣的方法。”

  A 2010 study commissioned by City Hall blamed dirty air for 4,267 premature deaths every year. While London has come far since the days of its infamous pea-soupers — toxic clouds of smog that killed thousands — its air still endangers many. Nationally, figures show that air pollution is Britain’s second-biggest public health hazard, after smoking.

  倫敦市政廳2010年委托的一項研究把4267名市民的早逝歸罪于骯臟的空氣。過去,曾有上千人死于倫敦臭名昭著的黃色濃霧造成的有毒煙云。今天,倫敦的空氣質量已有很大改觀,但依然對許多人造成威脅。 相關數據顯示,空氣污染是英國全境第二大健康殺手,僅次于吸煙。

  Levels of small particle pollution — which causes health problems including heart attacks and lung cancer — are high, but no worse than in many other European cities, said Frank J. Kelly, an environmental health professor and head of the environmental research group at King’s College London. Officials are tussling with Brussels over London’s breaches of E.U. limits, which Mr. Kelly said were twice what they should be to safeguard health.

  倫敦國王學院(King’s College London)的環保健康教授和環境研究課題組組長弗蘭克·凱利(Frank J. Kelly)說,空氣顆粒污染會引起包括心臟病和肺癌在內的疾病,倫敦的空氣顆粒污染程度較高,但并不比其他許多歐洲城市更糟。官員們正在與布魯塞爾歐盟總部就倫敦違反歐盟限制進行激烈角力。凱利認為,歐盟設定的限制已經比維持人體健康的正常指標高了一倍。

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  Where London stands out is its nitrogen dioxide levels, which are the highest of any European capital and often double the legal limit, Mr. Birkett said.

  伯基特認為,讓倫敦尤為突出的是,它的二氧化氮污染是歐洲各國首都中最為嚴重的,常常達到法定限制的兩倍。

  That is largely because of the number of diesel buses, black cabs and cars on the streets, plus widespread use of natural gas for home heating. Nitrogen dioxide is linked to respiratory trouble and can aggravate heart problems. Countries across Europe have struggled to control concentration levels, which are higher than in the United States because of the Continent’s heavy use of diesel fuel.

  原因主要是街面上數量龐大的柴油公交車、黑色出租和私家車,以及家用天然氣取暖器的普遍使用。二氧化氮與呼吸困難有關,還可能加重心臟疾病。歐洲各國都在竭盡全力控制二氧化氮濃度水平。因為大量使用柴油燃料,歐洲的二氧化氮濃度比美國更高。

  Now, some businesses are making their own efforts to tackle the problem, working with the City of London Corp., the local government body for the Square Mile financial district.

  現在,一些企業正在和倫敦舊城公司(City of London Corp.)攜手應對這個問題。倫敦舊城公司是管理“方里”(Square Mile,即倫敦舊城)金融區的政府機構。

  Others are developing technologies like exhaust filtration or cleaner taxis, in hopes of making a profit while helping Londoners breathe more easily.

  其他一些企業正在開排氣過濾裝置和環保出租車之類的技術,以期在盈利的同時幫助倫敦人更輕松的呼吸。

  The British manufacturer Eminox is one company working with the bus and train agency Transport for London on a pilot program to retrofit 18 buses to reduce nitrogen dioxide emissions. It hopes to win a £10 million, or $15.7 million, contract to install the technology on up to 1,000 of the city’s 8,500 buses.

  英國制造商Eminox就是其中之一。它和公交及鐵路管理機構倫敦交通局(Transport for London)開展合作試點項目。他們翻新了18輛公交車來減少二氧化氮排放。倫敦共有8500輛公交車,Eminox希望能獲得價值1000萬英鎊即1570萬美元的合同,把這項技術應用在其中的1000輛上。

  Eminox has also worked to help companies meet London’s Low Emission Zone particle pollution standards for trucks, buses and other large vehicles, rules that were set out by the former mayor, Ken Livingstone, and brought into force gradually, with the final phase kicking in at the start of this year.

  Eminox還盡力幫助其他公司,使他們旗下的卡車,公交車和其他大型交通工具的顆粒污染物排放達到倫敦二氧化氮低排放區的標準。該標準是由倫敦前市長 肯·利文斯通(Ken Livingstone)設定的,之后被逐步推行,并于今年初進入最后實施階段。

  “It’s a good example of a win-win, of something that’s beneficial for air quality and helping businesses like ourselves to develop green technology,” said Kathye Henderson, an Eminox spokeswoman. The London work “puts us in a very good position to then be able to export this technology across Europe and further afield.”

  Eminox的女發言人凱西·亨德森(Kathye Henderson)說:“這是個雙贏的好例子,既對空氣質量改善有益,又能幫助我們這樣的企業開發綠色技術。”倫敦的工作“讓我們占據了有利地位,使我們能夠在今后把這項技術出口到歐洲各國乃至更遠的區域。”

  In the financial district, the Japanese financial services group Nomura has been a leader in private-sector efforts to improve local air quality. Working with the City of London Corp.’s two-year-old CityAir program, Nomura has consolidated food and office supply deliveries and garbage pickups to cut truck trips. It has also banned engine idling outside its offices, and encouraged employees to share late-night taxis home.

  日本的金融服務集團野村證券是倫敦金融區私營企業努力改善地區空氣質量的領導者。野村證劵參與了倫敦舊城公司兩年前發起的城市空氣項目(CityAir),有效合并了食品、辦公設備的投遞和垃圾的清運以減少卡車運輸次數。它還禁止在辦公室外閑置引擎,并鼓勵員工夜間拼車回家。

  When the group moved to a new London office two years ago, it made environmental sustainability a priority, said Tony Bartle, Nomura’s head of real estate services for Europe, the Middle East and Africa. Building emissions from boilers and other equipment are a significant source of nitrogen dioxide, which together with nitrogen monoxide is known as NOx, so Nomura installed low-NOx boilers and energy-efficient lighting and generators. Its new building has a plant-covered roof, which cuts energy use and helps clean the air. Bike racks encourage cycling to work.

  野村證券歐洲、中東和非洲房地產服務部負責人 托尼·巴特爾(Tony Bartle) 透露,兩年以前,當集團搬進新的倫敦辦公室的時候,他們就把環境可持續性置于優先考慮。建筑物的鍋爐和其他設備的排放物是二氧化氮的一個重要來源,二氧化氮和一氧化氮合稱為氮氧化物。有鑒于此,野村證券安裝了碳氧化物排放量低的鍋爐,以及高效節能的照明和發電系統。野村證券的新樓屋頂為綠植所覆蓋,這樣既能減少能耗,又能凈化空氣。自行車停放架則鼓勵大家騎車上下班。

  Many of the changes, Mr. Bartle said, either cost nothing or save money.

  巴特爾說,其中的許多改變都不花錢,有的甚至還省了錢。

  That is also true at Simmons & Simmons, a large law firm: Its Walk to Client program uses an internal social networking site, posters and small foldout maps to prod employees to avoid taxis for short trips. It provides wheeled cases for those with heavy files to carry, and it has promoted the program to 20 other law firms.

  大型律師事務所西盟斯(Simmons & Simmons)亦有類似經歷:它的“步行去見客戶”計劃利用公司內部社交網絡、宣傳海報和小型折疊地圖來鼓勵員工避免乘坐短程出租。公司為攜帶沉重文件的員工提供了帶輪子的文件箱,并把這項計劃推廣到了其他20家律師事務所。

  CityAir is also spreading the word about such efforts to other companies and encouraging neighboring London boroughs to pursue similar programs. It is encouraging Square Mile landlords to help building tenants work together to consolidate deliveries and pickups, and urging companies to use their purchasing power to push for clean air, for example by requiring taxi companies to use low-pollution vehicles, said Ruth Calderwood, who oversees air quality issues for City of London Corp.

  城市空氣計劃也在向其他公司宣傳他們的努力,并鼓勵 鄰近的倫敦各區推行類似的計劃。倫敦舊城公司負責監管空氣質量問題的魯斯·考爾德伍德(Ruth Calderwood)說,公司鼓勵“方里”之內的業主幫助住戶聯合起來,合并物品投遞和取送,并敦促各公司利用手中的購買力來推動空氣凈化,例如,要求出租車公司購買低污染交通工具。

  “Some of these businesses have got huge buying power, and from a supply side may well change the market,” Mr. Birkett said. “Done right across London, I’m confident it would make a significant difference.”

  伯基特說 ,“其中的一些企業擁有巨大的購買力,很可能從供應方角度就此改變市場。我相信,如果整個城市齊心協力地做好事, 倫敦就會有顯著的變化。”

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