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這是迄今為止最全面的月球地質圖

  Cartographers merged Apollo-era maps and modern lunar observations to make the new graphic

  制圖者將阿波羅時代的地圖和現代的月球觀測結果融合在一起,形成了這幅新的地圖

  A new map of the moon is the most comprehensive geologic map of the lunar surface(nearside shown left,farside shown right).Different colors designate different surface features,such as lunar highlands(dark earth tones)and ancient lava flows(reds and purples).

  新的月球地圖是最全面的月球表面地質圖(左圖近側,右圖遠側)。不同的顏色表示不同的表面特征,如月球高地(暗土色調)和古老的熔巖流(紅色和紫色)。

  In the most comprehensive lunar map yet,the moon looks like it’s been playing paintball.

  在迄今為止最全面的月球地圖上,月球看起來就像在玩彩彈游戲。

  每一種飛濺的顏色都代表一個獨立的巖石或沉積物的形成

  Each splash of color identifies a discrete rock or sediment formation,including craters,basins and ancient lava fields.For instance,“the darker,more earth tones are these highland-type terrains,and the reds and the purples tend to be more of these volcanic and lava flow materials,”says geologist James Skinner,who oversees the production of standardized maps for solar system bodies at the U.S.Geological Survey in Flagstaff,Ariz.(For more details on exactly what those colors mean,check out the map in all its glory here.)

  每一種飛濺的顏色都代表一個獨立的巖石或沉積物的形成,包括隕石坑、盆地和古代熔巖場。例如,“這些高地類型的地形是深色和更多的土黃色,而火山巖和熔巖流中的物質更多是紅色和紫色”。地質學家James Skinner負責為亞利桑那州弗拉格斯塔夫的美國地質調查局監督太陽系天體的標準地圖制作。

  The Unified Geologic Map of the Moon,released April 20 by the USGS,as it’s called,combines information from six regional lunar maps created during the Apollo era,as well as recent spacecraft observations.The modern data include views of the north and south lunar poles made by NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter,and observations around the equator from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency’s SELENE lunar orbiter(SN:7/10/19).

  美國地質調查局(USGS)于4月20日公布了這張月球地質圖,它綜合了阿波羅(Apollo)時代繪制的六幅月球的區域地圖信息,以及最近的宇宙飛船觀測數據?,F代數據包括美國國家航空航天局(NASA)的月球勘測軌道飛行器拍攝的月球南北兩極的照片,以及日本航空航天局的塞萊納(SELENE)月球軌道飛行器(SN7/10/19).

  This lunar cartography project was trickier than just fitting Apollo-era maps together like puzzle pieces and using new data to tweak the details—in part,because the edges of the regional maps didn’t line up.Many surface features at the boundaries between neighboring maps were labeled with inconsistent names,descriptions and ages.

  這個月球制圖項目比僅僅把阿波羅時代的地圖像拼圖一樣拼在一起并使用新的數據來調整細節要復雜得多,部分原因是區域地圖的邊緣沒有對齊。許多相鄰地圖邊界處的地物被標記上不一致的名稱、描述和年代。

  阿波羅時代的地圖是由不同的研究小組繪制的

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  Those discrepancies arose because the Apollo-era maps were created by separate research groups,and two different teams looking at the same parts of the moon could interpret what they saw differently.For instance,one group might have seen something jagged on the surface and called it a fault,whereas another team could have read it as a fragment ejected during the formation of a crater.

  這些差異產生的原因是,阿波羅時代的地圖是由不同的研究小組繪制的,而兩個研究月球相同區域的不同團隊可以對他們看到的情況做出不同的解釋。例如,一個小組可能看到表面有鋸齒狀的東西,并稱之為斷層,而另一個小組可能會將其解讀為隕石坑形成過程中噴出的碎片。

  Skinner and colleagues reconciled those discrepancies by analyzing information from all six regional maps,along with the new lunar orbiter observations,to figure out the proper identifications for different surface features.That allowed the team to draw up a comprehensive geologic map of the whole moon.

  斯金納和他的同事們通過分析所有六幅區域地圖的信息,以及最新的月球軌道飛行器觀測數據,調和了這些差異,以找出不同表面特征的正確識別方法。這使得研究小組能夠繪制出一幅完整的月球地質圖。

  Detailed observations from the lunar orbiters were especially helpful for clearing up uncertainties in how different craters overlapped with each other,which revealed the craters’relative ages.Hammering out crater formation timelines gives insight into the moon’s history(SN:3/26/18).

  來自月球軌道器的詳細觀測尤其有助于消除關于不同隕石坑如何相互重疊的不確定性,從而揭示出隕石坑的相對年齡。計算出隕石坑形成的時間線使人們得以更加深入的了解月球的歷史(SN:3/26/18).

  The new map could also inform future human missions to the moon by revealing regions that may be rich in useful resources or areas that need more detailed mapping to land a spacecraft there safely(SN:12/16/19).

  新的地圖還可以顯示可能富含有用資源的地區,或者還需要更詳細描繪的地區(以使航天器安全著陸),并為未來的人類登月提供任務(SN:12/16/19).
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