快捷搜索: 紐約時報  抗疫  疫情  經濟學人  武漢  中國 

骨骼損傷暗示一些狩獵采集的婦女參加過戰斗

  Traditional views of females being largely responsible for gathering food may be too simplistic

  認為女性主要負責收集食物的傳統觀點可能過于簡單。

  人群中曾經存在過女戰士

  Women’s reputation as nurturing homebodies who left warfare to men in long-ago societies is under attack.Skeletal evidence from hunter-gatherers in what’s now California and from herders in Mongolia suggests that women warriors once existed in those populations.

  在很久以前的社會里,婦女把戰爭留給了男人,她們則負責養育家庭,但現在這個說法受到了質疑。來自加利福尼亞的狩獵采集者和蒙古牧民的骨骼證據表明,這些人群中曾經存在過女戰士。

  Two research teams had planned to present these findings April 17 at the annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.That meeting was canceled due to the coronavirus pandemic.The results have been provided to Science News by the scientists.

  兩個研究小組計劃于4月17日在美國物理人類學家協會的年會上提出這些發現。由于冠狀病毒大流行,那次會議被取消了。研究結果已由科學家提供給《Science News》。

  Sexual divisions of labor characterized ancient societies,but were not as rigidly enforced as has often been assumed,the new studies suggest.“The traditional view[in anthropology]of‘man the hunter and woman the gatherer’is likely flawed and overly simplistic,”says forensic anthropologist Marin Pilloud of the University of Nevada,Reno.

  新的研究表明,古代社會是按性別進行勞動分工,但并不像人們通常認為的那樣嚴格執行。內華達大學里諾分校的法醫人類學家Marin Pilloud說,“在人類學中認為男人是獵人,女人是采集者的傳統觀點可能是有缺陷的,而且過于簡單。”

  Consider hunter-gatherers who lived in central California as early as around 5,000 years ago as well as more recent Native Americans groups in that region,such as Coast Miwok and Yana.Some archaeological evidence as well as historical accounts and 20th century anthropologists’descriptions generally portray men in those groups as hunters,fishers and fighters in tribal feuds and conflicts with outside armies.Women are presented as focused on gathering and preparing plant foods,weaving and child care.

  想想早在5000年前就生活在加利福尼亞中部的狩獵采集者,以及最近在該地區的土著人群體,如Coast Miwok和Yana。一些考古證據和歷史記載(包括20世紀人類學家的描述)通常將這些群體中的男人定義為獵人、漁民以及參與部落爭斗或者外部沖突的戰士。女性則專注于采集,準備植物性食物,編織和照顧孩子。

  But skeletons of 128 of those hunter-gatherer women display damage from arrows and sharp objects such as knives comparable to skeletal injuries of 289 presumed male warriors,Pilloud and her colleagues found.Whether those women fought alongside men or carried out other dangerous battle duties,such as sneaking up on enemies to cut their bow strings,can’t be determined from their bones.Individuals in this sample came from 19 Native American groups in central California,and had lived in any of five time periods between around 5,000 and 200 years ago.<紐約時報中英文網 http://www.244129.buzz/>

  但是,Pilloud和她的同事們發現,這些狩獵采集的女性中有128人的骨骼顯示出箭頭和刀具等尖銳物體造成的損傷,與289名男性戰士的骨骼損傷相當。這些女性是與男性并肩作戰,還是執行其他危險的戰斗任務,比如偷偷靠近敵人切斷弓弦,這些都無法從她們的骨頭上判斷出來。這個樣本中的個體來自加利福尼亞中部的19個印第安人群體,他們生活在5000年到200年前的5個時間段中的任何一個。

  Evidence analyzed by Pilloud’s team was part of a database of excavated skeletal remains from more than 18,000 central California hunter-gatherers assembled by study coauthor Al Schwitalla of Millennia Archaeological Consulting in Sacramento.A 2014 study directed by Schwitalla determined that 10.7 percent of males in the database had suffered injuries from sharp objects and projectile points,versus 4.5 percent of females.The new study finds similar patterns of those injuries on the skeletons of men and women.

  Pilloud研究小組分析的證據是來自加利福尼亞中部超過18000個狩獵采集者的骨骼遺骸數據庫的一部分(由來自薩克拉門托考古咨詢中心的研究合作者Al Schwitalla收集)。2014年由Schwitalla指導的一項研究確定,數據庫中10.7%的男性遭受過尖銳物體和拋射點的傷害,而女性只有4.5%。新的研究發現,男性和女性的骨骼上也有類似的損傷。

  In wars between Native American tribes in California,women were often killed in surprise raids and other attacks,which may partly explain female injuries reported in the new study,says biological anthropologist Patricia Lambert of Utah State University in Logan.

  洛根猶他州立大學的生物人類學家Patricia Lambert說,在加利福尼亞的印第安部落之間的戰爭中,女性經常在突襲和其他襲擊中被殺,這可能是這項新研究報告中女性受傷的部分原因。
紐約時報中英文網 http://www.244129.buzz/


  Some women may have fought in battles,either to defend their children or village or as warriors,suggests Lambert,who was not part of Pilloud’s team.But further evidence of female fighters,such as Native American women in California buried with weapons and other battle artifacts,is needed,she says.

  一些婦女可能參加過戰斗,要么是為了保護自己的孩子或村莊,要么是作為戰士。但她說,還需要更多的女性戰士的證據,比如埋葬在加州的土著婦女身上的武器和其他戰斗文物。

  A second skeletal analysis suggests that nomadic herders in ancient Mongolia,bordering northern China,trained some women to be warriors during a time of political turbulence and frequent conflicts known as the Xianbei period,says anthropologist Christine Lee of California State University,Los Angeles.The Xianbei period ran from 147 to 552.

  洛杉磯加州州立大學的人類學家Christine Lee說,第二份骨骼分析表明,與中國北部接壤的古蒙古游牧民族在政治動蕩和沖突頻繁的鮮卑時期會訓練一些婦女成為戰士。鮮卑時期是從147年到552年。

  In a study of nine individuals buried in a high-status Mongolian tomb from the Xianbei period,conducted by Lee and Cal State colleague Yahaira Gonzalez,two of three women and all six men displayed signs of having ridden horses in combat.

  Lee和加州州立大學的同事Yahaira Gonzalez對鮮卑時期蒙古古墓中埋葬的九個人進行了研究,發現三名女性中的兩名和六名男性都有在戰斗中騎馬的跡象。

  結論基于三方面的證據

  That conclusion rests on three lines of evidence:bone alterations caused by frequent horse riding and damage from falls off horses;upper-body signatures of having regularly used bows to shoot arrows,including alterations of spots where shoulder and chest muscles attach to bone;and arrowhead injuries to the face and head.Because the tomb was previously looted,any war-related objects that may have been interred with the bodies are gone.

  這一結論基于三方面的證據:頻繁騎馬造成的骨骼改變和從馬背上摔下來造成的損傷;由于上半身經常使用弓箭,造成的包括肩部和胸部肌肉與骨骼相連的部位的變化;以及箭頭傷及面部和頭部造成的損傷。因為這座古墓曾被洗劫過,所以任何可能與戰爭有關的物品都不見了。

  In western Asia,archaeologists have uncovered potential graves of women warriors that include weapons and war gear.

  在西亞,考古學家發現了一些可能是女戰士的墳墓,其中包括武器和戰爭裝備.

  By around 900,written documents refer to Mongolian women who fought in wars,held political power and had diplomatic credentials,Lee says.Freedom for Mongolian women to pursue a variety of activities goes back at least to the Xianbei period,she suspects.

  Lee說,到大約900年,書面文件指的是參加過戰爭、擁有政治權力和外交資格的蒙古婦女。她懷疑,蒙古婦女追求各種活動自由至少可以追溯到鮮卑時期。

  Lee now plans to look for skeletal evidence of female warriors in more Mongolian tombs dating to as early as around 2,200 years ago.

  Lee現在計劃在更早的2200年前的蒙古墓穴中尋找女戰士的骨骼證據。

  “Badass women may go back a long way in northern Asian nomadic groups,”she says.

  她說,“在亞洲北部游牧民族中,女戰士的歷史可能要追溯到很久以前。”
網站部分信息來源于自互聯網和網友上傳,只為方便大家查詢瀏覽,請自行核對信息的真實情況,本站將不承擔任何責任!

您可以還會對下面的文章感興趣:

  • 36小時環游新加坡
  • 中國頒布新規,限制未成年人玩游戲
  • 辭掉工作、花了57天,他們找回了走失的狗
  • 改善健康也許很簡單:每天少吃300卡
  • 從《老友記》到《早間新聞》,詹妮弗·安妮斯頓的新旅程
  • 最新評論

    留言與評論(共有 條評論)
       
    驗證碼:
    美人捕鱼教程